This is a glossary of terms related to Internet and intranet information services. The Internet is a vast collection of interconnected networks that all use the TCP/IP protocols. The Internet gives you the ability to view information all over the world. An intranet is a private network used by a company or an organization.
Terms in this glossary are excerpted from A Channel Marketing White Paper From Caldera Systems by Dean R. Zimmerman, Technical Writer at Caldera Systems Inc.
Copyright November 1999, Caldera Systems Inc. All rights reserved, worldwide.
A computer used to connect networks and systems in a network, passing information packets to different parts of the network. Depending on the role of the network connection, a different term is used to describe the connection (for example, bridge, router, or gateway).
Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
A feature common to worldwide Web servers that provides 'dynamic' Web page generation by interfacing common programming languages (such as, Perl, C, Shell scripts, etc.) into Web pages.
Customer Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSUDSU)
The hardware component that connects a high-speed digital data line (such as 56K frame relay or T-1) to your Internet server.
Dedicated High Speed Data Line
A special phone line used to connect a computer to an Internet Service Provider, making it an Internet server. Those lines are provided by the phone company for an additional charge. They require additional hardware to use (not just a modem). They are accessed continuously and operate at speeds from twice to 50 times the speed of a 28.8K modem. Examples of high-speed line types include 56KB Frame Relay, ISDN and T-1.
E-mail Server/ Gateway
A daemon running on an Internet server that transfers e-mail messages using SMTP, POP, or IMAP protocols. Depending on the protocol used, the server either deposits mail in a user's directory, passes the mail on to another system if the e-mail it receives doesn't belong to a user on the sys-tem, or transfers mail when asked by a mail client.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Server
A daemon running on an Internet server that lets FTP clients (usually on another machine) transfer files for that Internet server.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Documents used to answer commonly asked questions. People who are new to an organization should read its FAQ documents before asking any general questions. FAQs generally cover hundreds of topics on the Internet, including one for each popular newsgroup.
A daemon running on an Internet server that processes requests that come from gopher clients using the gopher protocol. There are thousands of Gopher sites around the world, but they are gradually being replaced by Web servers because Web servers provide more capabilities.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol used to access and serve multimedia documents on the Worldwide Web. The URL for a Web document will start with http:// to indicate the HTTP protocol.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
The simple tagging system used to create documents for the Worldwide Web. Though Web browsers can display a variety of data formats, the basic format for the Web itself is HTML. It consists of plain text files with tags around text to indicate titles, paragraphs, where graphics are located, etc. Any text editor or word processor can be used to create HTML documents, though specialized tools make it easier.
Any program that passes requests to an Internet information service running on an Internet server. This is a generic term for such things as an e-mail reader, an FTP client, a gopher client, a telnet client, or a Web browser.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
A group of people who determines Internet policies and practices.
Internet Information Services
A program running on an Internet server which lets users on the Internet access information on that Internet server in a certain way. The services are generally daemons that wait for requests of a certain type and then respond to them. For example, users may access your organization's Web site, or transfer files to or from your server.
A computer connected to the Internet by a dedicated line that provides ser-vices to Internet users (for example, Worldwide Web access, FTP access, and e-mail). The server has an IP address and domain name assigned by the InterNIC.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
A company that lets companies and individuals connect to its Internet servers for a fee. ISPs generally offer a variety of services (for example, dial-in or dedicated lines, different line speeds, individual and business accounts, and personal Web pages). Fees for service can be a flat or hourly rate. The fees charged by the ISP are independent and in addition to any fees from the telephone company providing the communications line.
A group of modems attached to a computer (such as an Internet server). This lets a group of users call in using a modem over a regular phone line and use simple terminal software or SLIP/PPP software to get a network connection.
Request for Comment (RFC)
Usually a proposal to accept a technology or standard on the Internet. Most of the protocols (including the Worldwide Web) began as RFC documents, which sought feedback from the Internet community before getting started.
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) & Point to Point Protocol (PPP)
Protocols used to establish actual networked connections between computers over a standard phone line using a modem. PPP is used more often because it is more robust and can be used with different protocols (for example, IP and IPX).
Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP)
The mail protocol most commonly used on the Internet and by Unix systems.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
A protocol used by system administrators to monitor certain events on a network. For example, if a certain event occurs, the system sends a short message. An SNMP console running on another system can collect these messages and monitor networks or specific machines on the network
A daemon running on an Internet server that lets users connect to other systems on the network over the Internet as if they were seated at the Internet server itself. The user must log in to a valid user account on the Internet server before any access is granted to the user.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Location of a file on the Internet (for example, http://www.caldera.com/ or ftp://caldera.com/doc/). At the very least, a URL contains a protocol and system name (usually with the domain name). The URL may also contain the path, filename, and additional parameters.
Unix to Unix Copy (UUCP)
A protocol used to move files from one Unix-type machine to another. It is a relatively old protocol, typically used for intermittent, low-speed connections.
Usenet News Server
A daemon running on an Internet server that serves messages from news-groups. Any messages posted to a newsgroup can be read and responded to by anyone using a newsgroup reader.
An Internet client that can access (or browse) information on Internet servers. (For example, Netscape Navigator is a web browser.) Web browsers can access other information via HTTP, FTP, newsgroups, and gopher.
Worldwide Web Server
A program running on an Internet server that responds to requests from Worldwide Web clients (such as, requests to view online manuals). The Web server can send many types of documents, control security, and process programs to determine what to return to the user who is making the request. Worldwide Web servers are particularly suited to processing graphical, hyperlinked documents.
A Caldera Systems White Paper
Nov. 1, 1999
Copyright November 1999, Caldera Systems Inc. All rights reserved, worldwide.
This document is provided for informational purposes only, and the information herein is subject to change without notice. Please report any errors herein to Caldera Systems. Caldera Systems does not provide any warranties covering and specifically disclaims any liability in connection with this document. Caldera Systems is a registered trademark, the Caldera Systems globe, logotype, and OpenLinux are trademarks of Caldera Systems, Inc. All other company and product names mentioned are used for identification purposes and may be trademarks or registered marks of their respective owners.
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