Membership affiliation aside, the survey found no significant salary changes by job title or company size; however, the report did find salary discrepancies within different market verticals when it came to salary increases. The average annual salary across all survey respondents was U.S.$92,835. C-level executives, not surprisingly, reported a higher salary average of U.S. $106,151. Survey respondents within healthcare and government-defense reported the highest average annual salaries at U.S.$98,037 and U.S.$101,246, respectively. However, when it comes to average salary changes, 11 percent of survey respondents within the info tech vertical reported receiving more than a 10 percent salary increase in 2012. Among education respondents, 44 percent reported no change in salary, and 6 percent reported a salary reduction. Similarly, 45 percent of government respondents indicated no change in salary and 5 percent reported a salary reduction. "These differences," the report said, "provide an indication of which verticals are using salary to retain and reward security professionals more than other verticals."