Long-Term Or Light-Speed Evolution?
There's no way to tell exactly how the Starfleet communicators are networked together, but they sure aren't using 4G LTE. Despite being on the highly volatile planet of Nibiru, Kirk, Sulu and Spock are all able to communicate with the Enterprise during a volcanic eruption without a hint of static or lag. Admittedly, current cellular networks have come a long way from the "Can you hear me now?" days, and Starfleet presumably isn't dealing with issues of public bandwidth. But, modern day isn't too far off. MIT has something in the works: Distributed Programming Layer Over Mobile Agents, or DIPLOMA, a type of programming that allows mobile phones to process data locally rather than across a bloated cellular network where it's processed in a server. DIPLOMA's only been tested on 10 Android phones, but MIT found those phones had nearly 10X faster response times than today's client-to-server networks. But, that means by the next movie installment, MIT might have the advantage over Star Trek.
Advantage: Star Trek