Double Data Rate
First and foremost, DDR4 memory doubles the maximum transfer rate of DDR3. The new spec supports a per-pin data rate of up to 3.2 giga transfers per second (GT/s), twice that of its predecessor's eventual maximum of 1.6 GT/s (the ceiling was raised over time). And, DDR4's max could likewise go higher, as necessary, to accommodate faster components and bus speeds. So far, the only processor roadmap we've seen in support of DDR4 has been Intel's, with its Haswell server processor slated for 2014; consumer-platform support isn't expected until sometime in 2015.
Meanwhile, JEDEC member company Samsung announced in July that it had begun sampling the "industry's first" 16-GB DDR4 RDIMMs, and that it will also offer a 32-GB module; and Samsung, Micron and other companies already offer smaller-denomination DIMMs that comply with the spec.