1. Stuxnet Attack Linked To U.S.
In early June, the New York Times reported alleged ties between the Stuxnet worm and the presidential administrations of both George W. Bush and Barack Obama, thereby raising questions as to whether the U.S. was at cyberwar with Iran. The malware was allegedly used to attack centrifuges in Iran that were believed to be tied to a nuclear weapons program that economic sanctions had failed to deter. There was widespread speculation that the cyberattack would've been viewed as a substitute for conventional military attack that would have further destabilized the Middle East. This was presumably the first time that the United States has used this type of initiative against a foreign government.