Kazakhstan, a Russian speaking country in central Asia, is also a newly listed member. It earned the eighth place title on the Dirty Dozen list for pushing 3.3 percent of spam globally. Malware and phishing are common in spam messages in Kazakhstan and several other top countries, with a correlation between the spam messages and incidents of piracy. Pirated copies of Windows and other un-updated software often contain vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malware attachments in spam messages, Sophos said. Pirated software also often contains malware that can make the system part of a global botnet that spreads spam.