Earlier this year, several vendor reports on the state of software security provided signs that software security processes at major software vendors are maturing. The NSA revelations about NSA surveillance activities could put pressure on independent software vendors to create less buggy software and better implement data protections. In addition to U.S. authorities, considerable attention has been placed on Chinese cyberespionage and other nation-state targeted attacks. The hacking tactics use custom malware and zero-day exploits that target previously unknown software vulnerabilities. Activities include improving software development processes, using an outside firm to conduct vulnerability testing and repairing vulnerabilities before software is widely implemented.