5. Nations Will Agree To NATO Offensive Cyber Doctrine Within Next Few Years
Nation-states publish military doctrines to give adversaries a sense of the consequences they'll face when certain events happen, Mandia said. For instance, Mandia said the international community understands that the United States will intervene—as it did in Syria—if chemical weapons are used anywhere in the world.
But while doctrines exist to govern military behavior in the air, land or sea, Mandia said there's currently no cyber equivalent. Mandia said this has resulted in a less predictable and more aggressive cyber environment that's disliked by pretty much every nation, including Russia and North Korea.
Mandia expects a majority of nations will agree to an offensive cyber doctrine coming out of NATO within the next couple of years. The resulting document will be loose, have blurred lines, and be far from perfect, but Mandia said it'll help citizens and countries understand when offensive cyber activity is going to be provoked and why.